Authors: Si-An Chen; Voot Tangkaratt; Hsuan-Tien Lin; Masashi Sugiyama
Abstract: Reinforcement learning (RL) is a machine learning technique aiming to learn how to take actions in an environment to maximize some kind of reward. Recent research has shown that although the learning efficiency of RL can be improved with expert demonstration, it usually takes considerable efforts to obtain enough demonstration. The efforts prevent training decent RL agents with expert demonstration in practice. In this work, we propose Active Reinforcement Learning with Demonstration, a new framework to streamline RL in terms of demonstration efforts by allowing the RL agent to query for demonstration actively during training. Under the framework, we propose Active deep Q-Network, a novel query strategy based on a classical RL algorithm called deep Q-network (DQN). The proposed algorithm dynamically estimates the uncertainty of recent states and utilizes the queried demonstration data by optimizing a supervised loss in addition to the usual DQN loss. We propose two methods of estimating the uncertainty based on two state-of-the-art DQN models, namely the divergence of bootstrapped DQN and the variance of noisy DQN. The empirical results validate that both methods not only learn faster than other passive expert demonstration methods with the same amount of demonstration and but also reach super-expert level of performance across four different tasks.
Paper Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10994-019-05849-4
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