Authors: Andrew M. Barton; Helen M. PoulosForest type conversion is common across forests of the Southwest in response to the increasing prevalence of high-severity wildfires. We examined post-fire regeneration of pines and oaks in two high-severity fires in the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona. Under pre-Euro-American settlement fire conditions, thick-barked Pinus engelmannii and P. leiophylla survived typical, low-severity fires. In contrast, recent crown fires resulted in widespread mortality of pines, but oaks (Quercus hypoleucoides and Q. arizonica) have resprouted abundantly. Post-fire seedling establishment has been very low in P. engelmannii, which is largely restricted to moister, low-fire-severity sites. P. leiophylla has fared only slightly better, in part because of a modest amount of resprouting. The high performance of oaks in the post-fire landscape is tied to their high photosynthetic capacity and drought tolerance, while the poor regeneration of pines following high-severity wildfire is likely related to their drought intolerance and need to maintain a positive water balance. In response to high-severity fire in the Chiricahua Mountains, therefore, differences in sprouting ability and physiology appear to favor oaks over pines in the post-fire landscape, which could lead to a long-term reduction in the abundance and distribution of pines in these formerly mixed Madrean pine-oak forests.